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Laboratory of power and cryogenics


     The head of the laboratory is Baidakov Vladimir Georgievich, Doctor of Physics and Mathematics, a laureate of the RF State Prize, the author of four monographs and more than 230 scientific papers.

     The laboratory of power and cryogenics was organized in 1989 as a result of joining the group of cryogenics of the laboratory of phase transitions and nonequilibrium processes (headed by Dr. of Physics and Mathematics V.G.Baidakov) and the laboratory of power (headed by the candidate of technology E.V.Volkov).

     Laboratory staff: 12 persons, including three Doctors, four candidates of Physics and Mathematics, three research associates, one engineer, one laboratory assistant.

     The main lines of investigations:

  • Kinetics of spontaneous boiling-up of cryogenic liquids and their solutions;
  • Thermophysical properties of cryogenic liquids and their solutions in stable and metastable states;
  • Computer simulation of the initial stage of phase transitions, investigation of the stability of metastable phases;
  • Development of methods for describing surface phenomena in small systems and thermodynamic substance properties in metastable states.
  • Systems investigations of the efficiency of development of regional power complexes;
  • Thermophysical foundations of resource-saving technologies in power engineering.

     The workers of the laboratory pioneered in obtaining experimental data for limiting superheats and nucleation rate in cryogenic liquids (condensed inert gases, hydrogen and its isotopes, nitrogen, oxygen, components of natural gas) in a wide pressure range, including the vicinity of the critical point. The thermophysical properties (p, p, T-parameters, ultrasound velocity and absorption, heat capacity) of cryogenic liquids in the metastable (superheated) state have been investigated. Kinetic properties (viscosity, thermal conductivity) have been investigated in experiments on superheated organic liquids. The surface tension of cryogenic, low-boiling liquids and their solutions has been determined in a wide temperature range. A kinetic theory of boiling-up of superheated liquid solutions taking into account all the main factors that limit the growth of a vapor bubble has been suggested.
     The method of molecular dynamics has been first used for investigating the stability of metastable states (superheated and supercooled liquid, superheated crystal, supersaturated vapor) of a simple substance. The kinetics of spontaneous boiling-up of binary solutions of cryogenic liquids with total or partial solubility of components has been investigated by experiment. A complex investigation of heat transfer to emulsions with a low-boiling disperse phase has been made. A considerable extension of temperature intervals of bubble boiling has been established.
     A new technique has been suggested for calculating the reliability of fuel and power saving for regions by integrated indices. The interactions of power and economy factors in evaluations of power safety have been investigated.
     Along with fundamental investigations the laboratory participates in work of practical significance. A complex of investigations has been performed on thermophysical provision of safety for systems of storage and transportation of great quantities of cryogenic liquids. The workers of the laboratory took part in the development of methods for calculating transition processes in systems of filling, liquefaction and gasification of cryogenic liquids (with Kriogenmash). Some work has been done on thermophysical provision of safety for cooling systems of large storehouses for liquefied natural gas (with Gas Research Institute). An installation for heating natural gas with heat from extractions of a steam turbine was brought into operation on Power Unit 9 (with a capacity of 210 MW) of the Verkhnetagilskaya GRES. The installation gave a decrease in the specific fuel rate of 1-1.2 g/kWh, improved considerably the conditions of its maintenance and reduced the quantity of fitting. An experimental gas-turbine expansive station for generating electric power was brought into operation at the Sredneuralsk GRES of the joint-stock company Sverdlovenergo. Its electric power is 11.5 MW. The station ensures a fuel economy of 25-30 thousand tons of equivalent fuel a year. The main indices of power safety for the Sverdlovsk region have been determined by evaluating the interactions of power and economy factors in the region.

     References to Some Publications

  1. V.G. Baidakov, G.G. Chernykh, S.P. Protsenko. Effect of the cut-off radius of the intermolecular potential on phase equilibrium and surfase tension in Lennard-Jones systems // Chem Phys. Leh. 2000, 321, N3-4, p. 315-320

  2. V.G. Baidakov, G.Sh. Boltachev, J.W.P. Schmelzer. Comparison of different approaches to the determination of the work of critical cluster formation // J. Coll. and Interfase Sci. 2000, 231, p. 312

  3. V.G. Baidakov, A.M. Kaverin. A Hainable superheating of liquid helium-oxygen solution // High Temperature. 2000, 38, N6, p. 852-859

  4. V.G. Baidakov, G.Sh. Boltachev. The properties of a plane Liquid-Vapor interfase boundary of gas-satureted solutions // Russian Journal of Physics Chemistry. 2001, 75, N1, p. 21-26

  5. V.G. Baidakov, G.Sh. Boltachev. The properties of a urved Liquid-Vapor interfase boundary of gas-satureted solutions // Russian Journal of Physics Chemistry. 2001, 75, N1, p. 27-31

  6. V.G. Baidakov, G.Sh. Boltachev. On the disrepancy between thr Theory of homogeneous nucleation and experimental data for gas-satureted liquids at low temperatures // Russian Journal of Physics Chemistry. 2001, 75, N9, p. 1455-1458

  7. J.W.P. Schmelzer, V.G. Baidakov. Kinetics of condensation and boiling: Comparison of different approaches // J. Phys. Chem. B. 2001,105, p. 11595-11604

  8. V.G. Baidakov, G.Sh. Boltachev, S.P. Protsenko, G.G. Chernykh. The Van der Waals Theory of Capillarity and Computer Simulation // Colloid Journal. 2002, 64, N6, p. 661-670

  9. V.G. Baidakov, S.P. Protsenko, G.G. Chernykh, G.Sh. Boltachev. Statistical substantiation of the Van der Waals theory of in homogeneous fluids // Phys. Rev E. 2002, 65, 041601-041601-16

  10. V.G. Baidakov, A.M. Kaverin, G.Sh. Boltachev. Experimental investigations of nucleation in Helium-oxigen mixtures // J. Phys. Chem. B. 2002, 106, p. 167-175

  11. J.W.P. Schmelzer, V.G. Baidakov, G.Sh. Boltachev. Kinetics of boiling in binary liquid-gas solutions: Comparison of different approaches // J. Chem. Phys. 2003, 119, N12, p. 6166-6183

  12. G.Sh. Boltachev, V.G. Baidakov, J.W.P. Schmelzer. First-order curvature corrections to the surface tension of multicomponent systems // J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2003, 264, p. 228-236

  13. J.W.P. Schmelzer, V.G. Baidakov. On different possibilities of a thermodynamically consistent determination of the work of critical cluster formation in nucleation theory // J. Chem. Phys. 2003, 119, N20, p. 10759-10763

  14. G.Sh. Boltachev, V.G. Baidakov. Mechanical approach to the description of a liquid-vapor interface at low temperatures // Chem. Phys. Lett. 2004, 394, N4-6, p. 329-333

  15. V.G. Baidakov, G.Sh. Boltachev. Extended version of the Van der Waals capillarity theory // J. Chem. Phys. 2004, 121, N17, p. 8594-8601

  16. V.G. Baidakov, G.Sh. Boltachev, G.G. Chernykh. Curvature corrections to surface tension // Phys. Rev E. 2004, 70, N1, 011603 (7 pages)

  17. J.W.P. Schmelzer, V.G. Baidakov. Comment on "Multicomponent nucleation: Termodynamically consistent description of the nucleation work" [J. Chem. Phys. 2004, 120, p. 3749] // J. Chem. Phys. 2003, 121, N3

  18. Baidakov V.G., Protsenko S.P. Singular point of a system of Lennard-Jones particles at negative pressures. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2005, 95, N1, 015701-4

  19. Baidakov V.G. Boiling-Up Kinetics of Solutions of Cryogenics Liquids. Nucleation Theory and Applications. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Weinheim. 2005, p. 126-177

  20. Schmelzer J.W.P., Boltachev G.Sh., Baidakov V.G. Is Gibbs' Thermodynamic Theory of Heterogeneous Systems Really Perfect? Nucleation Theory and Applications. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Weinheim. 2005, p. 418-446

  21. Baidakov V.G., Protsenko S.P. Metastable extensions of phase equilibrium curves in the Lennard-Jones system.Nucleation Theory and Applications (Ed. J.W.P.Schmelzer, G.Ropke, V.B.Priezzhev). Dubna. JINR. 2006, p. 43-61

  22. Baidakov V.G., Protsenko S.P. Metastable extension of the sublimation curve and the critical contact point. J. Chem. Phys. 2006, 124, N23, p. 231101-231103

  23. Schmelzer J.W.P., Boltachev G.Sh., Baidakov V.G. Classical and generalized Gibbs' approachesand the work of critical cluster formation in nucleation theory. J. Chem. Phys. 2006, 124, 194503(1-18)

  24. G.Sh. Boltachev, V.G. Baidakov. The Thermodynamic Properties of nitrogen, argon, oxygen, and Their Mixtures in the Region of the Liquid-Gas Phase Transition. Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry. 2006, 80, N4, p. 501-504

  25. V.G. Baidakov, S.P.Protsenko. Metastable extensions of phase equilibrium lines and singularities of simple substance. J. Exper. and Theor. Phys. 2006, 103, N6, p. 876-886


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